Thursday, January 16, 2020

Revenue and Volume Variance

Polysar CASE Group 3 †¢ Polysar Limited – Established on 1942, Now employed 6,650 people – Structure : Basic Petrochemicals, Rubber, Diversified Products †¢ Rubber Group is Profit Center – Rubber Group produced 46% of Polysar sales Group 3 – 2/13 †¢ NASA – Sarnia 1 Plant : Produce Butyl & HaloButyl > HaloButyl (from 1984) – Sarnia 2 Plant : Produce Butyl (operation 1984) 1) 1984 : 95,000 t 2) 1985 : 65,000 t †¢ EROW – Antwel plant : Produce Butyl & HaloButyl (1964, 1979 modified) 1) 1981 : Prduced Butyl(75%) & HaloButyl(25%) 2) 1985 : Prduced Butyl(50%, 45,000t), HaloButyl(50%, 45,000t) Transfer NASA to ERROW : Butyl(21,000t)Group 3 – 3/13 Q1. The meaning and accuracy of the volume variance. †¢ NASA Rubber Division? Sales Performance(1986) Actual Net sales Revenue 63,239,000 Budget 58,660,000 Deviation 4,579,000 exceed 3,735,000 exceed Gross Margin ? Sales Volume Up 40,945,000 37,210,000 ? Feedstock Cost Down Group 3 – 4/13 †¢ NASA Rubber Division – Net Contribution(1986) Actual Budget Deviation Volume Variance – 11,375,000 -6,125,000 5,250,000 U Gross Profit / NSR 8. 2% 13. 7% -5. 5% Net Contribution – 876,000 2,005,000 -2,881,000 Group 3 – 5/13 †¢ Volume Variance ? Volume Standard Fixed ? Actual Tonnes Produced Variance Cost Per Tonne ? ( + Demonstrated Capacity ) – (? ) – Sarnia 2 (1984) – ? ? NASA to EROW Group 3 – 6/13 Q2. The best sales and production strategy for EROW Division, NASA Division and the Rubber Group in Total. †¢ EROW Division Strategy Transfer Advantage (From NASA) Feedstock – Halobutyl ( )? Group 3 – 7/13 Accurate Budgeting †¢ NASA Division Strategy Volume Variance? NASA? Not Transfer Reach Capacity SARNIA 2? Production Capacity? 95,000? (1984) 65,000(1986)? Group 3 – 8/13 †¢ The Rubber Group Strategy Be a leader in high margin, specialty rubbers Main Strategy , ? 1) Transfer? (Regional Service) 2) 3) ? Group 3 – 9/13 Q3. Management accounting performance system to improve the reporting and evaluation of the Rubber Group performance will be raised. Strategy Group 3 – 10/13 Strategy ? ? Transfer > > Transfer ? Negotiation Price Group 3 – 11/13 †¢ ( ) Strategy SARIN 2 Product Volume Variance N N N Gross Profit / NSR E N Net Contribution E 1986 65,000 t 1987 95,000 t Improve 35,000 t 5,250,000 – 11,375,000 -6,125,000 8. 2% 35. 7% – 876,000 22,661,000 13. 7% 5. 5% 35. 7% 2,005,000 22,661,000 2,881,000 Be a leader in high margin, specialty rubbers Group 3 – 12/13 The End

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Conflict Management Skills Free Essay Example, 2250 words

As the paper outlines, conflict management skills include assertiveness, listening skills, empathy, and a win/win approach. In conflict management, assertiveness should not in any way be compared with aggressiveness. Assertiveness is the ability to express one s feelings and assert one s right in a way that is respectful of the feelings and rights of others. The reason why assertiveness may be equated with aggressiveness lies in the fact they are both direct ways of expressing one s needs. They involve people standing up for their rights. Still, assertiveness recognizes and respects the other person with whom one is involved in a conflict with. In such a case one often respects his/herself and assumes the best about the other person. The consequence of this is that they look for a win-win situation and thus reach a compromise. This is in total contrast with aggressiveness where disrespectful, manipulative, or abusive behavior is employed. In most cases, aggressiveness is retaliatory without taking into consideration the other person s point of view. Its goal does not lie in the effective resolution of a conflict rather in just the expression of emotions. We will write a custom essay sample on Conflict Management Skills or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page As they talk no unrelated issues should be brought forth. Moreover, he should be able to repeat and clarify what he wants from the man. (Greenfield 1998) Again, the managers/employers or even fellow employees need to employ what is referred to as active listening skills. In active listening, the aim is to try and understand what the other person is saying. This involves paraphrasing what the other person is saying in order to communicate that one really understands what the other is saying.

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Case Analysis Wal-Mart Rosemead Essay - 971 Words

Case Analysis: Wal-Mart Rosemead When Wal-Mart tried to establish one of its Superstores in Rosemead, CA, its Corporate social responsibilities are questioned when the company is met with heavy opposition. With the opening of the new Wal-Mart in Rosemead there are groups of people that will gain and groups of people that will lose. This paper will analyze, using John Stuart Mill’s Utilitarian reasoning of â€Å"the greatest good for the greatest number† and theory of social responsibility by Milton Friedman, whether providing low cost merchandise to the masses outweigh consequences of the expansion of Wal-Mart into the residential city of Rosemead. The groups that stand to lose the most with the introduction of the Wal-Mart store in†¦show more content†¦State Assemblywoman Judy Chu said† Local businesses will watch helplessly as customers disappear to Wal-Mart. Why would any resident shop at a local store if they can buy pickles at a Wal-Mart for a dollar cheaper? My own reports say that local retailers will lose about $8 million annual in sales.† This implies that even though the local businesses will lose from customers moving to Wal-Mart, customers will gain having competition in the market that will allow for cheaper priced items. Rosemead was specifically targeted by Wal-Mart for its demographic, a city that has 22.8% of its residents living below the poverty line, lower prices will definitely benefit this demographic. Cheaper priced merchandise come at a price, job benefit though touted as a benefit to the community by Wal-Mart is often seen negatively by analysts. Peter Cannels, a community Affairs Manager of Wal-Mart replied to a hiring question that â€Å"our associates are directly from the community and reside within the community† furthermore â€Å"initial hiring process would be about 300 associates† up to 550 depending on customer mass. Opponents countered that the average pay of Wal-Mart employees were lower than workers employed in large retail. Another complaint against Wal-Mart was that any job creation gains were offset by the taxpayers cost of providing health and welfare services to Wal-Mart employees. But here, according to

Monday, December 23, 2019

Examination of Clinical Psychology - 1665 Words

Clinical psychology is a broad science that involves psychologists ensuring the mental well-being of a patient. Its focus is diagnosing, treating, and if possible, averting psychological disorders. The field of clinical psychology applies to every demographic from young children to the elderly, families or individuals, and one’s socioeconomic status is not a factor in whether he or she should receive treatment. Clinical psychology deals with a broad range of specialties, including individuals who have been diagnosed with disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder or those who are coping with personal issues, such as being fired from his or her place of employment or going through a divorce. Psychologists in this field offer†¦show more content†¦It was during this time psychologists learned that affected organs in the body could cause illness and possibly lead to death. Ultimately, the discovery of such scientific findings would usher in a new era of clinical psychology and render Greek ideologies a thing of the past. Psychology officially became a valid field in 1879 when German physician Wilhelm Wundt opened his laboratory of psychology at the University of Leipzig in Germany. Wundt conducted many experiments in his laboratory, with a focus on human reaction. His intent was to study behavior in order to acquire a better understanding of the mind and its workings by using scientific methods. Four years later, Lightner Witmer opened the first psychological clinic in Pennsylvania (Plante, 2010). During this time, many professionals in the field were more interested in experimental psychology and were against the idea of human behavior being applied to clinical situations. Despite misgivings concerning the new field, clinical psychology was able to flourish and has come a long way since earlier opposition. Evolving Nature of Clinical Psychology The evolution of methods of diagnosis and treatment in medicine has been characterized by the gradual accumulation over many centuries of a large body of objectively recorded observations (Routh, 2000). With technology ever-changing to fit the modern standards of today, so too does the field of clinical psychology. New scientificShow MoreRelatedExamination of Clinical Psychology1306 Words   |  5 PagesThe examination of clinical psychology increases from Sigmund Freud to Greek philosophy as well as contemporary psychology that gathers information from science, ideas, and other jurisdictions. The exploration of science moves forward and alters clinical mediations as empirically grounded proof backing up the ethics which psychologist in the clinical field treat human trials. However, significant differences occur among clinical psychologists and other psychological sciences, each enhances theRead MoreExamination of Clinical Psychology1819 Words   |  8 PagesExamination of Clini cal Psychology Vicki Roberson 480 AUGUST 7, 2011 Elizabeth Kane Examination of Clinical Psychology Clinical psychology was not discovered until 1879, at the University of Psychology, in Leipzig, Germany, by Wilhelm Wundt. Much has transpired before the discovery such as Theodor Fechner published The Elements of Psychophysics in 1860, and in 1874, Wilhelm Wundt published the Principles of Physiological Psychology. Both of the publications were needed to stateRead MoreEssay about Examination of Clinical Psychology1197 Words   |  5 PagesRunning head: EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Examination of Clinical Psychology University of Phoenix PST/480 Karen Wilson Nov 14, 2011 Examination of Clinical Psychology Clinical psychology is a very important as well as popular part of the field of psychology that is used very often. To begin, a definition of clinical psychology will be included. According to APA (2009) â€Å"Clinical psychology attempts to use the principles of psychology to better understand, predictRead MorePsychology : Psychology And Psychology1630 Words   |  7 PagesPsychology is a very broad field of study and requires a lot of research when choosing a career. The education that is required for pursuing a career in the field of psychology depends on the type of psychologist you want to be. Most psychology programs require at least a master s degree to pursue a psychologist career, but some may require a doctoral degree. It is important to know the educational requirements as well as state requirements when entering the field of psychology. Southwestern hasRead MoreWhy I Am A Psychologist, The State Of Kentucky One Must First Obtain Licensure1057 Words   |  5 PagesKentu cky Board of Examiners of Psychology (2007) the Kentucky Revised Statutes, KRS 319.005 states that no one by law is allowed to use the title of psychologist, practice as a psychologist, or in any way cause others to believe that they possess credentials to do so, unless they have been licensed by the board. Since I am not one for breaking the law I decided to pursue my goal of becoming a psychologist and go to college. After graduating with my B.S. in Psychology from the University of PhoenixRead MoreClinical Psychology. A Clinical Psychologist Or The Psychological1081 Words   |  5 PagesClinical Psychology A Clinical psychologist or the psychological specialty provides continuing and comprehensive mental and behavioral health care for individuals and families; consultation to agencies and communities; training, education and supervision; and research-based practice (APA, 2017). In order to become a Clinical psychologist, you will need a higher level of education to include a Master’s degree, certification, license, and Doctorates depending on the position one is trying to attainRead MoreCareer Investigation Into Psychology901 Words   |  4 PagesCAREER INVESTIGATION Title: A career investigation into Psychology. Description of Career: Psychologists study the way people think and act. They look at all behaviour and the thoughts and feelings that make us act the way we do. They use their understanding to help people with difficulties to change their lives for the better. Skills and Qualities: I feel Psychologists should be committed to helping people transform their lives in a positive way. They should be caring, extremelyRead MoreClinical And Biological Components Can Cause A Child s Social, Emotional, And Cognitive Roles981 Words   |  4 PagesClinical Child Psychology is defined as a specialty in professional psychology that develops and applies scientific knowledge to the delivery of psychological services to infants, toddlers, children and adolescents within their social context (Clinical Child Psychology, 2015). They study how experimental and biological components can cause a child’s social, emotional, and cognitive roles to change as a child grows older. In order to become a clinical child psychologist, it can be quite difficultRead MoreClinical Psychology and Psychiatrist1024 Words   |  5 Pages Many people confuse clinical psychology with psychiatrist thinking that it is the same thing When, in reality it is not. Clinical Psychology is the study of the emotional, biological, psychological, social influences, and intellectual abilities (â€Å"Society of Clinical Psychology.†). They are trained to diagnose, treat, and study people who are mentally ill. A clinical psychologist usually does four to five years of graduate work, and one year internship under the supervision of a practicing psychologistRead MoreBecoming a Clinical Psychologist Essay1037 Words   |  5 PagesBecoming a Clinical Psychologist The word psychology can translate to mean â€Å"the science of the soul.† Since Aristotle, psychology has become both a science and a profession. As a profession, it is the application of understanding people and their behavior to help solve human problems (Careers, 1993). A psychologist usually concentrates on one specialty that is of particular interest. There are many different fields of psychology to study. Clinical psychologists work with people with emotional

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Traditions Aren’t Always Worth Keeping Free Essays

On the morning of June 27th, a tiny town of about 300 people, meet in the town square for a tradition they call â€Å"the lottery. † The kids come first to the square, straight from school, then come the fathers, and then the mothers after they finish the housework. They all stand waiting as they call the names of all the fathers in the families to the front to pull a wood chip from a black box, and the family with the black dot on their wood chip will participate in â€Å"the lottery. We will write a custom essay sample on Traditions Aren’t Always Worth Keeping or any similar topic only for you Order Now † Each member of that family will draw a piece of paper hoping is doesn’t contain a black dot.Whoever gets that specific piece of paper will be stoned to death by the whole town. This intense story comes to life in Shirley Jackson’s â€Å"The Lottery,† written in 1948. This is a very trying story that has a huge impact on the town, and ends with a stoning. This small town has become accustomed to this tradition that will not be let go. After studying the story, Shirley Jackson presents the theme that, People are reluctant to reject outdated traditions, ideas, and/or practices. According to dictionary. com, Traditions are beliefs or customs taught by one generation to the next, often orally.These traditions are maintained usually by societies and government’s, and share history, customs, culture, the teaching of language, and sometimes education. Traditions are a part of our society today, and some traditions date back to past generations. Us as individuals may have our own traditions in our own family, usually being annual traditions. Government and city traditions are different that family traditions, in the way that, throughout the years traditions may need to be altered or changed depending on the times, as generation change. However, this doesn’t always happen. The lottery,† is a tradition in this town that is not even a thought when it comes to change. Some people in the town feel that there was a reason this tradition was started, and it should be continued. It has caused a lot of tension and a lot of ideas on whether or not this tradition should be kept. Many people in the town feel this is a harsh way of exiling someone from the town, and feel it is very unnecessary. Traditions become a big part in this story and present the theme throughout the story. â€Å"The morning of June 27th was clear and sunny. . . . . The people of the village began to gather in the square, between the post office and the bank around ten o’clock,† (Jackson 586).This passage that opens the short story presents the setting, but also shows the audience that the setting is a part of the tradition of â€Å"the lottery. † Every year in June this routine of coming to the square to participate in â€Å"the lottery† becomes second nature to the town, and they soon realize that this is a tradition that will continue. Jackson not only discusses that the setting is a tradition, but also presents that even the materials that they use are traditions as well. The black box now resting on the stool had been put into use before Old Man Warner, the oldest ma in town, was born,† (587). The box is the item that is used for the drawing, which by this point, as old as it is, needs to be remade. â€Å"Mr. Summers spoke frequently to the villagers about making a new box, but no one like to upset even as much tradition as was represented by the black box,† (587). Traditions in this town will not be easily let go. This box does need some serious work, but Jackson goes on to say that they just tape it up and it’s ready to go for the next year.Cummings Study presents â€Å"This box is used as a symbol to present that this town is stubborn and doesn’t want to give up their traditions, even a simple item is something they can’t get rid of. Everything needs to be the original. † Traditions are even kept in the process of performing the lottery. Mr. Summers, on of the main characters in the story and presides over the lottery states, â€Å"Now I’ll read the names- heads of the families first- and the men come up and take a paper out of the box.Keep the paper folded in your hand without looking at it until everyone has had a turn,† (589). This is the process of the lottery and it shows that even this hasn’t changed. Jackson goes on to say that the people of this town had heard this speech so much that they half listened. She also says that most of them were quiet and frustrated with what was about to happen. â€Å"The lottery has become very frustrating to these people, and after so many years participating in the lottery is enough,† states Brothers Judd, a review of the story.So how many years has this been going on? Old Man Warner, a character in the story, says â€Å"Seventy-seventh year I been in the lottery. Seventy Seventh time,† (590) which shows the audience that this tradition has gone on a long time. At the event there was even talk between two of the characters Old Man Warner and Mr. Adams on the fact that over in the North Village are talking about giving up the lottery, and Old Man Warner comes back and says â€Å"Pack of crazy fools. Listening to the young folks, nothing’s good enough for them.Next thing you know they’ll want to go back to living in caves, nobody work anymore, live that way for a while. Used to be a saying ‘lottery in June, corn be heavy soon’. . . . . There’s always been a lottery,† (590). With strong feelings Old Man Warner shows that the lottery is here to stay and it always will be. It is the town history and is part of their culture. The stubborn attitudes of some people in this story have caused a problem in this town when deciding on whether or not to keep the lottery. Jackson is trying to get across that even though this is an old tradition it needs to be kept around.Keeping these traditions are not always the best thing to do. Looking at America’s history, we had several traditions that we have had, that have had negative impacts such as, slavery, Salem Witch Trials, and Voting, that had they not been changed our country would not be where it is today. Some of the characters in the story realize that change is good and the traditions should be looked at more to see if this is actually worth keeping, while other characters don’t care what others think and are strict to following the tradition.Jackson shows the audience of the story that traditions are there for a reason, but also shows that change is always good. People are reluctant to reject outdated traditions, ideas, and/or practices. We need to be open to new ideas. America has in its history and following the same traditions isn’t always right. Overall this was a great story and would defiantly recommend it. Jackson presents many more ideas than what I have mentioned and I think every reader should experience it themselves. How to cite Traditions Aren’t Always Worth Keeping, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Hypoglycemia Essay Example For Students

Hypoglycemia Essay Hypoglycemia is a condition in which the amount of sugar in the blood drops to an abnormally low level. It occurs in association with a number of diseases and can affect anyone. Blood sugar, more formally known as glucose, is the fuel all cells in your body uses for heat and energy (Hypoglycemia, (Low Blood Sugar)). Glucose is produced by the breakdown of glycogen, a pancreatic hormone that tends to raise sugar in the blood. Glucose enters the cells of your body through insulin. Insulin is what lowers the blood sugar. Glucose also enters the body in many ways, including absorption from the digestive tract and diffusion from the tissue fluids and the liver. Glucose leaves the blood by diffusion into tissue fluids, by metabolic conversion to glycogen or fat, or by oxidation in the tissues to produce energy (Hypoglycemia). Normally, the body maintains a glucose level of about 70-110 milligrams per deciliter of blood (Recognizing and Treating Hypoglycemia). When these levels drop below normal, it causes many organ systems to malfunction. Low blood sugar levels especially affect the brain because glucose is the brains major source of fuel. Sustained hypoglycemia has been know to cause serious brain damage and even death. Hypoglycemia has several different causes. The most common is in people with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes occurs when the body cannot use glucose for fuel because whether the pancreas is not able to make enough insulin or the insulin is not effective. The aim of treatment in diabetes is to lower high blood sugar levels and keep them stable. To do this, most people take insulin shots or oral drugs. Hypoglycemia occurs most often in people with diabetics use too much medication. People who have diabetes often refer to hypoglycemia as an insulin reaction. A rare cause of hypoglycemia is an a uto immune disease in which the body produces antibodies to insulin (Marks, 153). The levels of insulin in the blood change abnormally as the pancreas produces high amounts of insulin to deal with the antibodies. This condition may occur in people with or without diabetes. Other causes of hypoglycemia include: excessive alcohol consumption, drug use, prolonged strenuous exercise, kidney failure, cancer, malnutrition, liver disease and sometimes even psychological disturbances. Just because a person may suffer from one of these causes does not man that they have hypoglycemia. The symptoms of hypoglycemia vary from person to person, but often start with being hot and uncomfortable, followed by profuse sweating. Other symptoms include dizziness, weakness, fainting, nervous shaking, extreme hunger, blurred vision, migraines, exhaustion, and the list continues. Many people experience one of more of these symptoms everyday, but frequent reoccurrence are usually signs that a person may hav e hypoglycemia and should be checked by a physician. Fasting hypoglycemia, the most serious and uncommon type of hypoglycemia may develop following prolonged starvation and rarely in pregnant women whose bodies cannot adjust to the increased glucose requirements of the fetus (Cryer, 216). It is more likely to be a sign of pancreatic tumors, liver disease, hormonal deficiencies or other diseases. Fasting hypoglycemia usually occurs when no insulin is available to help the glucose enter cells. Another type, reactive hypoglycemia, occurs within a few hours after eating foods high in glucose. Symptoms include those of extreme fear and anxiety. Although it is hardly ever an indication of a serious disease, reactive hypoglycemia has attracted public attention because of its strongly annoying symptoms. People who have reactive hypoglycemia are advised to follow a healthy diet and exercise regularly (What is Hypoglycemia?)The diagnosis of a person who is suspected of having hypoglycemia begins with the verification of the condition. Other than evaluating the symptoms, it is most important to observe the blood sugar levels through a series of blood sugar tests. However, measurement of glucose levels does not reveal true hypoglycemia. .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8 , .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8 .postImageUrl , .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8 , .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8:hover , .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8:visited , .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8:active { border:0!important; } .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8:active , .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8 .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9bb71be0fdc9349c78121f7dd12637a8:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Causes of Child Abuse EssayBlood sugar tests are usually done in the doctors office. Glucose levels can be checked at home, using a drop of blood obtained by pricking the finger at the time symptoms occur and a device that reads the blood and displays the level. Home tests are recommended for diabetics because they are often not entirely accurate. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), which is commonly used to help diagnose diabetes, is rarely used for diagnosing hypoglycemia because its results are often misleading (Fast Facts About Hypoglycemia). Experts now realize that the OGTT can actually trigger hypoglycemic symptoms in people with no signs of the disorder (What i s Hypoglycemia?). The bodys first defense against hypoglycemia is to convert glycogen in the liver to glucose. This means that there must be glycogen in the liver. Glycogen is stored only when there is a good balance of glucose and insulin. It will be available only if control has been good. If control has been poor, then glycogen will not be there when a person needs it. The only truly effective treatment for hypoglycemia is to treat the basic problem. People often follow a special diet, which helps relieve symptoms. Even when blood sugar levels are normal, many people feel better after eating small meals containing carbohydrates such as breads, beans and pastas. However, in a person with diabetes, eating or drinking anything high in sugar such as cokes and candies can quickly relieve hypoglycemia. To avoid reoccurring attacks, hypoglycemics should eat about six small meals a day, rather that the usual three. By doing so, blood sugar levels should remain steadier and symptoms should decrease. The goa l of every hypoglycemic should be to stabilize blood sugar levels so that there will be a constant supply of energy in the body (Hypoglycemia, (Low Blood Sugar)). Also, if a person is prone to attacks, they should always carry glucose tablets, sugar cubes or candy with them. Wearing a medic alert bracelet to inform medical personnel of their condition and having identification is also a plus. Hypoglycemia indicates lack of energy and sugar in the body. It can lead to disorders, brain damage, or even as serious as death. Persons who believe that they may be experiencing hypoglycemia should seek medical attention because of such serious effects it has on the body. The study of hypoglycemia has lead to much needed information on other diseases and insights. Berkow, Robert, Hypoglycemia, The Merck Manual of Medical Information, New York: Merck and Company, Inc., 1997. Cryer, Philip E., Glucose Homeostasis and Hypoglycemia, Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 8th Edition, Philadelphia: W .B. Saunders, 1992. Fast Facts About Hypoglycemia, The Sugar Association, 19 April 2000, **. Hypoglycemia, Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc., 1993. Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar), H.E.L.P. The Institute For Body Chemistry, 19 April 2000, **. Marks, Vincent, and F. Clifford Rose, Hypoglycemia, 2nd Edition, London: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1981. Recognizing and Treating Hypoglycemia, Diabetes Well, 19 April 2000, **. What is Hypoglycemia?, Mediconsult Network, 19 April 2000, **. Bibliography:Works CitedBerkow, Robert, Hypoglycemia, The Merck Manual of Medical Information, New York: Merck and Company, Inc., 1997. Cryer, Philip E., Glucose Homeostasis and Hypoglycemia, Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 8th Edition, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1992. Fast Facts About Hypoglycemia, The Sugar Association, 19 April 2000, . Hypoglycemia, Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc., 1993. Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar), H.E.L.P. The Institute For Body Chemistry, 19 April 2000, . Marks, Vincent, and F. Clifford Rose, Hypoglycemia, 2nd Edition, London: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1981. Recognizing and Treating Hypoglycemia, Diabetes Well, 19 April 2000, . What is Hypoglycemia?, Mediconsult Network, 19 April 2000, .

Friday, November 29, 2019


Introduction and History Supplies to firms contribute to high costs, which eventually affect the competitive position of the firm. Firms have, in turn, adopted supply chain management practices to enhance the efficiency of their supplies-related costs and thus improve their positions competitively. Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) programs are one of the tools that firms use to achieve synchronisation of their supply chain.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Vendor-Managed Inventory: UAE vs. International Contexts specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Vendor Management Inventory is defined as a distinctive storing that mainly focuses on the customer, and which uses Server Valuestreamguru. It varies from the other supplies management systems in the sense that ownership is maintained to a point where the item is not entirely finished or consumed (Dejnega 63). The VMI approach was first introduced in 1985 by leading US retai ler chain WalMart and manufacturer Procter and Gamble. This system did not only help the firms improve their supply chain, but it also enabled them to fix their positions as market leaders. The system particularly helped WalMart to track supplies to its stores as an alternative to the replenishment process that was previously adopted by the firm. The initial system was time wasting and failed to effectively cater for the requirements of customers all at once (Dejnega 62). Advantages of the VMI Approach The VMI approach helps firms to reduce the amount of inventories that they hold at any one given time, while also improving on their service delivery. The approach aids this in numerous ways, both when the vendor is expected to replenish several customers existing in close proximity and when a single customer expects to be served with several products. The vendor may consolidate the numerous product orders such that only a single shipment is needed. Orders may also be consolidated eas ily as a result of using the VMI system of supplies (Salzarulo 2). This can be achieved when the supplier times the dates when inbound shipments will be received and coincides them with the outbound shipments schedules. This would eventually enable the supplier to cut down on the actual inventory that is held on the site.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Vendors are able to achieve on-hand inventory allocation amongst the customers by virtue of using the VMI approach. This particularly becomes applicable at the time when the supplier replenishes several customers. Instead of sending fixed quantities to the customers at every shipment, the supplier may opt to vary the supply size during each shipment. The bullwhip effect is significantly reduced by adopting the VMI in supplies. This often occurs when order fluctuations are increased to the higher supply chain echelons. The bu llwhip effect results in an inefficient use of the inventory as well as the manufacturing capacity. This is because increased order variability results in two scenarios, which include additional manufacturing capacity in order to provide sensible response times or added inventory to cushion against the biggest orders. As Salzarulo (3) points out, there is sharing of information within a supply chain that is coordinated and some bullwhip effect causes are eradicated, thus resulting in lowering the supply chain’s uncertainty. It also leads to increased efficient resource utilization. Disadvantages of VMI Firms find it a challenge to implement VMI to its utmost potential. This often results from the fact that manufacturing planning systems fail to utilize consumer demand information. Additionally, supply chains do not have a standardised product identification, which prevents the VMI from operating successfully. There is a variation between reality and assumption, which ends up affecting VMI’s performance and effectiveness. One such factor is the specific environment within which VMI is implemented. For instance, vendors may be required to customize their supplies such that they may accurately fit into the demands of the customers. This, in turn, eliminates one of VMI’s prime benefits, which involves the allocation of items amongst the customers (Salzarulo 4). The consolidation of shipment in VMI may also be realistic in actual sense.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Vendor-Managed Inventory: UAE vs. International Contexts specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The intended success in implementing the VMI is dependent on the prevailing bonds established among vendors and retailers. Where such relationship is strained, there will be little chances of the resultant VMI being successful in terms of reducing costs and increasing efficiency. For VMI to be greatly successful there is need for the parties to exchange data, some of which may be considered too sensitive. This will occasionally see firms lacking trust with their partners refusing to give out details concerning their operations. VMI Strengths At the supply chain level, VMI has the ability to reduce the amounts of inventory that are held by the firm. It also results in less overhead costs, limited errors associated with human data entry, and increased sales levels overly. To the vendors, it provides them with the capability to enjoy better insight in as far as customer demands are concerned and improves direct communication with the customers. The market analysis by vendors is also improved as a result of VMI, while increasing their ability to offer category management, as well as other value-added services. Some of the advantages that come with VMI include reduced replenishment durations for suppliers. Inventory costs that are associated with supply are also reduced considerably. The suppliers enjoy less redundancy and increase sales owing to reduced stock outs. The end-users, on the other hand, enjoy increased service levels and minimised instances of stock outs. VMI Weaknesses The main weakness for this approach is the fact that it has an insufficient visibility concerning the entire network of supply in some instances. While VMI’s performance will be excellent in an instance where large quantities of products that are frequently replenished are supplied, its performance in case of high level demand volatility leads to excessive inventories. Equally, VMI’s performance is only better where the effort of the manufacturer plays a critical role in influencing consumer demand, as well as during instances where consumers are least expected to go for substitute products during stock-outs. However, in such cases where substitution is found to be attractive, dependence on VMI could result into poorer performance (Olson and Deshrng 54).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More VMI Overview VMI seeks to manage as well as control the third party firms that deal with a company by way of supplying goods or the services required. VMI has set out goals, which an organization has to ensure that as it searches for third party business partners, these set out goals are observed. The main objectives of VMI include achieving high quality service, reduction in costs, and the satisfaction of goals as intended. VMI Goals Establishing goals The operations of the firm must be desired to attain a certain goal, which will be beneficial to the firm. Thus, these goals must be set out such that they will form the determining factor in the decision-making process of the firm, including during the process of selecting and managing vendors. Managing vendors There are a number of control mechanisms that a firm is expected to closely monitor in order to ensure success. These include monitoring the performance, initiating new projects, offering feedback information, and manage the control processes. Additionally, firms are expected to develop their vendors in various ways. The VMI determines all these aspects, and acts as a plan for the managers. Vendor selection Firms require dealing with vendors who match its own capacity of requirements. Thus, VMI establishes some of the strengths that the firm needs to observe while selecting the choice of vendor firm. These leads have been matched with the firm’s own internal requirements and capacity and thus managers are expected to observe them fully to avoid limitations in performance. Consistency in meeting goals VMI establishes statistically acceptable limits, both the upper and lower thresholds, which will enable the firm to achieve its target. The vendor manager has been provided with accurate measures and actions, including making sure that their selected vendor employ an adequate number of staff. These guidelines have to be followed to the latter to avoid a scenario where the firm will find itself missin g its targeted objectives. Market Analysis Systems used by main suppliers One-supplier one customer Often, a VMI system depicts a one-supplier one-customer relationship. However, in real life situation, there are models that exist that comprise of numerous suppliers, distributors, wholesalers, and manufacturers. In a one-supplier one-customer kind of a model, the minimum and maximum inventory amount is established by the customer. A penalty is paid to the customer for every supply unit that is made by the supplier, which falls outside the established limits. Both the customer and the supplier are aware of the demand distribution that the retailer requires. The supplier produces the customer’s demands without the capacity limit. In order to ensure that the demands of the customer remain consistent with the available inventory levels, the supplier is allowed to outsource. The penalty by supplier, however, is not incurred in an immediate situation, such as being incurred every d ay. Instead, they are determined over a long-term period, like after one year. This is done as part of the balanced score card assessment. One-supplier multiple consumers In this system type, both parties comprising of the supplier and the customers incur costs accruing from inventory and backorder. VMI does not offer any guarantees to synchronize the partners, not unless they agree to or recompense fixed transfer payments. According to related studies by Cachon (658), VMI under this particular system fails to offer any improvements in as far as the supply chain costs are concerned in forbidden fixed transfer payments. VMI Comparison and Evaluation: UAE vs. International level TVH Local application of VMI for TVH in the UAE mainly involves the firm utilising its supply chain for the numerous department stores that are located within the country. The department stores each have their own separate inventory policies. The lead-time for production of a single item takes five days. On th e other hand, the finished goods inventory on average take 8 week, with about two weeks involving safety stock. Order management TVH mainly rely on e-commerce in managing its supply chain. The firm has set up a dedicated order capturing screen that provides an opportunity for the call centre representative to make full reviews of the customer’s position. TVH representatives are in a position to check the business relationships as well as contacts based on varying criteria, including suspect, prospect, contact name zip code, city, and phone, among other details. The website is capable of integrating the website for such details as the product catalogs, sales orders, price lists, and the customer’s addresses and contacts. TVH also uses several POS systems for conducting customer returns, sales orders invoices, sales orders payments, customer’s contacts, and transfer order receipts. The POS system also integrates for transfer order receipts, inventory updates, and transfer order shipments, among many other services. Supply chain management The e-commerce system enables TVH to manage varying vendor contracts and a host of other vendor-related information, including bonus and rebates, management of the vendor calendar, vendor backorders management, as well as automated cross-docking and drop shipping notices. TVH’s VMI integration allows the firm to consign inventory to customers through use of invoicing and periodic consumption. The firm defines a warehouse for every customer site and the minimum stock levels forecasts are used to establish the needs from the main warehouse. The transfer orders used for issuing supplies to the VMI warehouses automatically get created, while the automatic stock availability control is undertaken by the main warehouse. The stock needed by a customer creates the necessary sales orders automatically, deriving the details from the VMI warehouses’ consumption. V-Line Europe At the international level, the practice comprises of determining plant demand. This is done by evaluating the combination of MRO needs, which keep changing on a regular basis. The MRO needs reflect on â€Å"the stock room reorder, the high-use wear parts, the emergency parts, as well as spot buys of items that are rarely used†. It also involves the scheduled maintenance projects. From the time when the order is placed until when the delivery is done, V-Line service is directly involved, and it takes title to the related MRO flow. Different goods are acquired from the numerous suppliers and put at the firm’s consolidation warehouse. Preparations are thereafter done concerning export, overseas transportation, as well as import country handling. In order to effectively manage how the goods flow and how transactions are done, V-Line uses modern information technology and communications links. Its computer systems have been linked together with those of the supplier firms through server systems on bo th ends. Communication is also established with the logistic vendors and the receiving customer plant through the use of computers and servers. V-Line boosts its VMI capability by making sure that the firm stays ahead in terms of offering quality services at an affordable fee. Moreover, the firm goes to the length of meeting the needs of the subject plants. This is a critical factor for the firm as it has enabled the optimization of cost and also enhanced the performance benefits. V-Line Import Logistics V-Line tracks the arrival dates at the country of destination and clears customs, import, together with transportation to the central point or the final receiving point. Where deliveries are to be made at a central location, the firm determines a warehouse location where deliveries will be made either on an express basis or through Just in Time (JIT) delivery. Documentation is done to reflect on the inventory level as well as to indicate the transfer ownership. The transfer of curre ncies is then undertaken, supported by all the necessary legal requirements. V-Line Services accepts payments that are done using the local currency and at the local address. V-Line Export Logistics The export logistics carried out by the firm begin with the acknowledgement of the vendor order before follow-ups are done. This helps in expediting transportation of materials to the V-Line warehouse. At the warehouse, receipt control is done together with undertaking item labelling and item inspection. The firm’s representative in charge signs a notice of inspection once the confirmations are done. The next process involves item consolidation scheduling, particularly for the consolidated orders shipments that appear within fixed intervals. The materials destined for export are packed in readiness for either container transport or airfreight. The documentations are done for purposes of meeting the customs requirement and the destination-country requirements. The materials are the reafter loaded onto the carrier pickup and V-Line Services indicates its partners both for insurance and financial needs. A consolidated invoicing is done as proof of payments made by the client for the delivery of goods. The last stage in the export process involves the firm making the payments to the material vendors. Transportation takes two days between the firm and the department stores, while the stores take another day for receiving the goods. Trends, Perspectives, and Recommendations Firms are generally shifting the responsibility of managing their inventories to the suppliers. There is growing need for firms to enhance their competitive position by limiting their operation costs as much as possible. As such, the adoption of lean supply chain systems, such as VMI, is taking preference. Although the adoption of highly efficient supply chain system is growing in demand, there are also emerging challenges in the area. VMI, for instance, is highly integrated with information tec hnology. With the continuous advancement of IT, there is growing need for firms to employ skilled personnel who will have the ability of advising the management appropriately in the area of supply chain systems. This will help to reduce expenditure as well as improve efficiency to a greater extent. Conclusion Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) is a system of managing inventory in a firm such that the costs involved can be maintained at low levels. The ability of a firm to maintain limited inventory costs enables the firm to achieve greater competitive position, which is critical for the growth and advancement of a firm. VMI mainly seeks to achieve strategic partnership and relationship between the firm and its third party business partners. The benefits of VMI for include enhanced efficiency, low inventory levels, and highly efficient supply chain. VMI system can either be such that a single supplier deals with numerous companies, or a single supplier dealing with a single customer. In both models, the partners into an agreement such that the supplier is strictly expected to determine the demand levels of a customer and offer to fulfil it without any fail. TVH mainly relies on e-commerce for managing both its supplier networks and order placements. Through internet connectivity, the firm tracks order placements from its customers and scrutinises all the details through the click of a button, before servicing. On the other hand, V-Line Service relies on an elaborate export and import logistic to undertake its international business. Works Cited Cachon, Gerald P. â€Å"Stock Wars: Inventory Competition in a Two Echelon Supply Chain.† Operations Research 49 (2001): 658-674. Print. Dejnega, Oleg. â€Å"Vendor Managed Inventory and Relish of Both Partners.† Annals of the University of Petrosani Economics 11.4 (2011): 61-72. Print. Olson, Davis and Deshrng Wu. Enterprise Risk Management. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co., 2008. Print. Salzarulo, P eter A. Vendor-Managed Inventory Programs and their Effect on Supply Chain Performance. Ann Abor, MI: ProQuest Information and Learning Company, 2006. Print. This report on Vendor-Managed Inventory: UAE vs. International Contexts was written and submitted by user Giselle Daniels to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.